Where are you from?

racism, Chinese, Crazy Rich Asians, #crazyrichasians

“North Jersey, right outside of NYC,” I’d always reply. I know what people mean when they ask me. Inevitably, they always follow up with “No, I mean where are you REALLY from?” At which point I’d say, “Oh, right. I was born in Texas, but I grew up outside of NYC, and that’s really where I feel like I’m from.” The questioner would usually be very irritated with me at this point, and he/she would ask, “I MEANT, where are your parents from?”

And I MEANT to make you feel uncomfortable and I MEANT to make it difficult for you. Because no one ever asks a Caucasian where they’re REALLY from. No one asks a Caucasian WHAT you are. No one ever guesses what European country a Caucasian might have ethnic ties to. But me? I’m like a party game. My entire life, people ask, “What are you?”, “Where are you really from?”–like I don’t belong here, like I don’t have a legitimate right to be a human from this country. People throw out different Asian countries in the hopes of getting it right, like there was a prize or fortune cookie if they nailed it. My entire life, people have asked me “to say something in Chinese” like I’m their circus animal who will perform tricks upon request. And when I refuse to play along, they get irritated. I’m labeled hostile, difficult, too serious.

I’m labeled a lot of things. As a model minority in this country, I’m told I should be grateful that stereotypical assumptions about me are largely positive. That I’m smart, that I’m good at math and science. That I can play the piano. That I’m quiet and agreeable and subservient. That I’m hypersexual. That I’m hard working and obedient and won’t cause trouble.

When I’m asked WHAT I am, where I’m REALLY from; when I’m automatically met with a set of neatly packaged assumptions and expectations before I open my mouth, I am automatically denied my humanity. I am not seen as a whole and valid human being deserving and worthy of occupying the same space and rights as others.

So a funny thing happened when I saw the promotion and marketing around Crazy Rich Asians. I was fascinated by all the promotion–the interviews, the fashion walking down the green carpet, the social media hype. When I finally went to see the movie, I found myself literally smiling through the entire thing.

Because along with the positive stereotypes, I was also always told that “I look exotic,” and it was apparently supposed to be a compliment instead of an adjective for birds. But looking “exotic” also meant my flat face and wide cheekbones and “single eyelids” were different, not pretty. No one was trying to look like me. No one graced red carpets or catwalks or magazine covers like me. No one played major roles on the small or big screen that looked like me unless he/she was a token doctor, nerd, restaurant owner, or hooker. Caricatures.

Yet these actors and actresses in Crazy Rich Asians–they were strutting down the green carpet unapologetically in their haute couture, their sparkly jewels, their wide cheekbones, their single eyelids. In the movie, Chinese pop music is PART of the soundtrack, not just a token song playing in the background of a karaoke bar. The movie set and costumes and location were glamorous and it was not a historical martial arts or gangster movie that caters to stereotypes. This was unapologetic ownership of who they are, who I am. Of their cheekbones and eyelids. Of their names that don’t fall easily off the tongue, of their family dynamics of saving face. These people who look like me–they were not quirky supporting roles–they WERE the story.

I had no idea how powerful racial representation really is. I had no idea how powerful the lack of racial representation is. Until I saw people who look like me up there as real, nuanced human beings. In real, nuanced life situations.

This movie was about relationships and love and family and connections. It was about BEING Chinese, and being HUMAN. It reminds us we are more the same than we are different. So why does it bother me when people think I’m hostile or too serious when I grumble about racial bias and stereotypes, yet at the same time, why am I celebrating our differences in this movie? Why does it sound like I’m saying this movie is a big deal, yet I also say this movie is relatable to all? Because the significance lies in its insignificance.

Because when the larger culture dehumanizes me, I will not be obedient and quiet. The very proof of my existence, my birth certificate, stripped me of my humanity literally the second I was born. Under race, my parents are “yellow.” I’d like to note none of us were jaundiced. I was denied my personhood when the ruling institutions told me my value is a color.

So when people ask me where I’m from, the answer is I am from a country that still sees color no matter how color blind people purport to be. I am from a world that gets defensive about universal racial biases. I am from a world that is finally proudly displaying and celebrating flat faces and wide cheekbones and single eyelids.

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Posted in Empowerment, Relationships | Tagged , , , , , , | 2 Comments

#winning at What Cost?

abusive sports culture, toxic sports culture, abusive culture, abuse, intimidation, fear

I’ve learned to listen to my gut. So when I first started hearing students and teachers describe a certain coach with certain words, it struck me as interesting, and I tucked it away. Fast forward to a year later, and I’m a little more than interested now. A child I know is playing under this coach now, and I’m watching carefully.

There has been little to no communication about the try-out process, practice schedule, or expectations. The students are not told if or when players may be cut, nor when students are told if they made the team. The players are not told when practice is, until literally the day before. It could be 6:30am, or 4pm. Players are not told when practice ends. Parents are notified practice is over when they hear from their child. Players were told they needed 4 different color shirts the night before scrimmages. This is disrespectful and unkind to parents and families. Someone needs to pick up that child or arrange a carpool if they do not live close enough to the school. Someone needs to go out and buy the shirts with little notice.

The players are screamed at if they are caught looking over at the football team on another field. The players are told their skills are “shit.” The players fear angering their coach. They fear getting cut. They fear being dropped down to JV. The players also have funny stories of the coach–the things he says sometimes are funny and appropriate. Parents in the community have some warm stories about the coach in other settings.

So I start to ask around a bit more. I want to know more about this person with a long history of coaching in the community. I ask others about their experiences as parents with their children playing under him. I ask others about their experiences as parents in the school. I ask others about their experiences as parents with children who play other sports or at other schools.

And some people tell me: “Oh, he’s just old school.”
“Oh he just hates parents, there are too many helicopter parents.”
“He’s a winning coach.”
“I hate to tell you this, but you can’t protect your kid anymore. It’s a common sports culture where coaches yell at players to not be pansies.”
“Oh, they’re in high school, they hear curse words all the time.”

Let me break this down. Cursing in high school? Sure, kids are exposed to cursing as early as elementary school–through music, movies, friends, family. But it is never appropriate for a teacher/coach to curse at teenage students. There is a boundary and hierarchy of mutual respect that dictates one should not be cursing in this dynamic. Like at church–cursing, no. At the mall with friends, fuck yeah.

As for protecting kids, I’m not one who has ever saved the day for my kids. If they have an issue with their teacher or grades, they are to use their words appropriately to rectify the problem while I sit at home cursing at the cats. So no, my concern does not originate from a purported over-parenting style.

As for being old school, or a winning coach, or a culture of sports–this excuse is tone deaf in our current climate and is an excuse used to enable. Simply because this is how things used to be does not make it appropriate nor effective nor right. This argument is akin to accepting sexual harassment or assaults as part and parcel of working in the movie industry. Or accepting sexual harassment in any workplace. Just because it was, doesn’t mean it’s ok, or that it has to continue to be this way. Right now, the University of Maryland is struggling with the death of a player because of a purported toxic culture. It’s really easy for things to go badly quickly.

Here is the thing that is not being recognized. Any one or two of the specific behaviors are excusable or acceptable or understandable. But one must look at the entirety of the situation. This dynamic and culture the coach has created through the years is an abusive dynamic.

In abusive relationships, there is control, unpredictability, shame, humiliation, fear, intimidation. Power is created and maintained through these currencies. Control and unpredictability over practice schedule, unpredictability over being cut or demoted–these breed fears and obedience. Being shamed and humiliated in front of your peers, inconsistent praise and uneven moods–these breed fears and obedience.

You wouldn’t accept this if your child was in an intimate relationship with these dynamics. Why would you accept this dynamic from an adult who has power in your child’s life? Stop enabling the abuser.

Abusers are also not monsters. It’s not mutually exclusive to be a good father or nice friend, and be abusive. But we all too often want to paint someone as all good or all bad to make it easier for us to reconcile. Just because he is a winning coach and is kind to certain people does not mean he cannot possibly create and maintain a toxic, abusive dynamic and culture.

Our teenage students also did not sign up for military basic training. This kind of “culture” has no place on any sports field. It is entirely possible to be a strong leader and manager who is supportive and kind, and be a winning coach. It takes more work to be supportive and encouraging and motivating. It is entirely possible to motivate athletes to achieve great goals and work hard without being controlling and demeaning.

So I talk to my children about management styles, and how it might be more effective if a person of power and authority utilized other strategies. I talk to my children about kindness and respect and support. I talk to my children about how someone can want something so badly (to play this sport) he/she will accept certain conditions. I talk to my children to recognize inappropriate behaviors and dynamics.

There’s a fear in the community of being labeled “that parent.” There’s fear that the player might get cut or otherwise punished for complaining. These fears are based in reality when stories are shared about past parents and players who dared to air their concerns. These are hard decisions to make, deciding how much is too much, and how much you might tolerate. All children deserve to be in healthy, nurturing, supportive relationships. We all deserve this. That’s the kind of #winning I encourage.

Posted in Empowerment, Parenting | Tagged , , , , | 5 Comments

Bearable Lightness of Being

 

unbearable lightness of being, bearable lightness of being, being still, teens, parenting

I never quite know who I’m coming home to. There are two human beings in middle school who have the keys to the house and full run of the refrigerator. But I don’t know who I’ll encounter when I come home, or when I wake, or when I turn the corner.

There’s a heaviness in some moments, when individuating and testing out boundaries and personalities becomes a bit too much. There’s a lightness in some moments, when cuddling or silly puns and building forts is comforting and fun. There’s chaos in some moments when we all get whiplash with intense feelings and misunderstood intentions. There’s stillness in some moments when we feel validated and safe.

This rearing of Teens, it can be unsettling, fierce, confusing. If I’m never quite sure what’s around the corner and I’m the one supposedly in charge, it must be terrifying for the Not-So-Littles in this household. I’m finding it’s become more important to prioritize just being.

They need a home base where they can walk into from the rest of their worlds. Their worlds are filled with pressure to excel in academics, pressure to play well in their chosen sports, pressure to figure out who they are, and what they like and don’t like.

They need a home base that allows them to just sit and be, and shrug it all off before deciding what to do with each of these pressures. They need the space to be encouraged to use words, to find words, to describe what their insides feel like and to find and use words to ask that their needs be met. They need safety to be disappointed when their desires aren’t met, and safety to try out different coping skills to deal with that disappointment and frustration.

I am finding I need space to find the words to process how my initial parent reaction may not be the best response for each child. I am finding I need safety to feel disappointed that their desires and dreams aren’t what I expected or wanted for them. I am finding I need the space and safety to sit back and truly look at each child as an individual, and not “my baby” when deciding if I say “yes,” “no,” or “maybe so.”

I need stillness. I need to be heard. I need to feel safe. I need to be able to process how quickly my babies have grown up. I need to process who each of them are now, and how their passions and personalities and dreams have changed through the years. I need to process that all of these will continue to change. I need to process how best to keep them engaged in family activities to minimize teen angst and “omg everything is boring” while not catering to their every whim. There’s a fine balance in being firm while honoring who they are.

I know it is in the unscripted and unexpected moments between events and activities that are so important for teens to disclose or speak their truth. It’s also in these moments of stillness that feelings and thoughts distill and settle into our beings. I’m trying to add more of those gap moments into our lives by saying no to activities and invites, by putting away the phones and laptops, by slowing down the very pace of walking and talking and doing.

I’m starting to see the Teens examine and prioritize things in their lives now. I’m starting to see them become more mindful of their actions and decisions instead of reacting to things. I’m starting to see a mutual validation between the Teens and myself as we purposefully choose behaviors and decisions that honor each of us as individuals.

And in all of that, there’s become a lightness about us and with our family dynamics. We still fall prey to stress and over-commitments and hasty reactions, but we’re still practicing. We’re finding that there’s grace and kindness and empathy in this lightness of being. And this is very bearable.

Posted in Mindfulness, Parenting | Tagged , , , | 3 Comments

Be Your Hero

hero, tribe, authenticity, relationships

When people think of relationships in February, they usually think about intimate relationships–their spouse, significant other, ex-lover. Too often, people don’t examine the relationship you have with yourself. It’s precisely this relationship you have with yourself that dictates and frames the rest of the relationships in your life.

How much do you value yourself? What do you think you deserve? How do you expect to be treated? What will you accept in your life? What do you believe you deserve? All of these answers require you knowing who you are and what your values are. Knowing who you want to be is just as important as knowing who you don’t want to be.

“You are the average of the five people you spend the most time with,” motivational speaker Jim Rohn once declared. You’ve also surely heard the saying that birds of a feather flock together. Then there’s the thought that one is guilty by association.

There’s something to be said for all of this. We know it’s easy to be influenced by peers. We see it all the time with youth and peer pressure. We never really escape peer or societal pressure, though you can learn to not react to it. But it’s easy to see how those we are closest to influence us.

Yet I reject the notion that who you are is merely an amalgamation of the people you are around the most. Sure, it can happen, but this notion implies a passive existence through life. We know there are plenty of people like this. But who do you want to be? Do you want to be a passive life liver? Do you want to be someone whereupon things happen to you, and you’re tossed around life like a ship in a storm?

To be the person you want to be, to have the relationships in life you want, you need to be an active and purposeful life liver. It’s more important to be mindful of the people you are closest to, rather than who you spend your time with. You don’t need to spend a lot of time with them. It matters more what these people mean to you.

Think about it–the people you’re closest to are people you love and respect. People you look up to. People who you seek approval from–you want them to like and respect you too. People who you seek advice from. People who support you in times of crises. People who can provide a different perspective for you rather than be a Yes friend.

This close tribe–you need to be mindful that each seat is taken by someone who makes you a better person. Someone whose values you agree with and admire. Someone whose disposition is one you’d like to emulate. Someone whose outlook is positive and energetic.

My close tribe–each one of them is kind and has a reservoir of grace. Each one is resilient and has good coping skills. None of my tribe runs away from their problems. They may whimper, but they’re no quitters. They each get up after getting knocked down. They take responsibility for their actions. They hold themselves accountable. They are reliable. They have integrity. They do and say hard things even when it’s uncomfortable. They are loyal and authentic and vulnerable. They don’t judge.

They inspire me. They are my heros. I ask myself all the time, how would my tribe members react to this, or view/interpret this? I act like the person I want to be because I surround myself with people who I want to be like–gracious, brave, kind people who share my values of accountability, reliability, and integrity. Because I know who I am and my relationship with myself is one of love, acceptance, and kindness. I’m able to have relationships in my life that honor me.

You are the sum of the people you are closest to. You are your heros. Be a purposeful life liver. Choose wisely who you pick to hold these roles in your life. Be your hero.

Posted in Empowerment, Mindfulness, Relationships | Tagged , , | Leave a comment

When Your Heart Breaks Open

broken heart, spiritual journey, spiritual awakening

I tell you this
to break your heart,
by which I mean only
that it break open and never close again
to the rest of the world.
-Mary Oliver

There was a moment recently whereupon my heart broke wide open. And I tell you, it literally filled me with light and love and joy. That moment shifted my baseline of who I am. I understand now what it means to walk down the path of enlightenment. I’m further down the path today. Mindfulness and meditation have transformed me into the kindest, gentlest iteration of me yet, bringing me closer to the truth of me. For that I’m so grateful.

It’s provided me the space and strength to practice feeling hard things and doing hard things. I still have a long way to go. I oftentimes still get stuck in the anxiety that arises from the unknowns, the sadness that arises from endings and loss, the anger that arises from someone hurting me. Sometimes it can feel like a dark place.

I was recently coping with an ending, and because humans are messy, it was messy. It was filled with texts and emails and lunch and phone calls full of hurts, awkwardness, warmth, laughter, silences, vodka, and tears over several days. I was a complete mess. Because that’s part of my charm.

I was tired of being a mess, I don’t like who I am in that mess. I was tired of being in this space of anxiety and sadness. I’m on a quest to view life as opportunities to do things differently, so that I can find myself in another space. I found myself in the middle of band practice. I love my band. I love making music with this motley crew of quirks and intelligence and kindness. Making music with people is magical and vulnerable and holy for me.

Before our next song, I looked down at my phone and I saw an email. My heart did what it’s always done–it dropped. I could feel the familiar start of the roller coaster ride of sadness and anxiety once I’m hooked on the storylines about this person and this ending. And I made a conscious decision to do something different. I remembered I had a choice.

I got off that ride. In a split second, I knew I could soak up the storylines and suffering, and weep internally while powering through the last hour of band practice feeling battered and broken. I knew I could do that. I’ve done it before. And gone home to weep more. I had every right to feel battered and broken. But it is time to do something different.

I chose to open my heart to softness, open my heart to these wonderful, accepting, kind bandmates who show up for me every week even though I can’t count, people I am so grateful for. I chose to open my heart to the miracle and joy and peace that comes with making music with people, connecting with them to do something I find so magical and fills me. So I closed my eyes and breathed, and drummed with them for an hour with my heart bursting full of love and gratitude. I was in the music. I was in them. The music was in me. They were in me.

I could feel my heart opening wide and expanding. I could feel these people, their kindness and thoughtfulness and acceptance. I could feel the notes and beat and melodies. I could feel the magic and love and gentleness fill my heart, literally.

And in that band room, as my heart literally expanded, was my spiritual awakening. I realized I was so distraught because I just want to be loved by someone I cared for deeply, someone who is such a perfect fit for me in so many ways. I just want to love someone fiercely.

Wait, I do. How fortunate am I that I have so many people I love deeply and they love me deeply, who are perfect for me in so many ways. How fortunate am I to be able to do things that fill my soul with people I love. Yes, these aren’t romantic or sexual loves and feelings, but my God, these true connections are intimate in their own ways. I am bursting with all that and surrounded by it all. How grateful I am to have so many people in my life to share deep, intimate love.

So I did something different. I opened my heart up to be soft, I didn’t tense up and try to resist the hurt or pain. It became one of those a-ha moments that resets my baseline in my spiritual journey. This spiritual awakening had nothing to do with him or dating or relationships. It is about softening into life and occupying this space gently, mindfully, spiritually. It is about mindfully choosing to do things differently.

This was about choosing love, choosing light, choosing peace. This was about deciding not to choose darkness, sadness, despair. This was about choosing to open my heart to accepting and feeling it all, and you know what? The love and light brightened the darkness and lit the way for Grace and love to walk in. My heart has broken open wide to this world, never to be closed again.

.

Posted in Dating, Meditation, Mindfulness, Relationships, spirituality | Tagged , , , , | 1 Comment

Grace in the Face of Betrayal

disappointment, betrayal, lies, grace

We’ve all felt betrayed or duped by people. We’ve all been hurt by people. We’ve all been disappointed by people we believed in, by people we trusted, by people we cared about.

I’ve believed in people I should not have. Through the years, I’ve gotten better at paying attention to red flags. I’ve gotten better at giving someone a fair chance with my eyes wide open. I’ve gotten better at deciding when I’m not going to accept certain behaviors anymore. Yet when I discover someone’s lied to me or betrayed me, it still shocks me.

First, I question my judgment. Then I realize if I didn’t ignore obvious signs, it’s not a bad thing to believe in the inherent goodness in people in spite of their flaws and messiness. It’s not a bad thing to give them the opportunity to do the next right thing. After all, people change. Or they don’t.

Does it hurt when they do not do the next right thing? Yes, it hurts something fierce. The disappointment is difficult to stomach without feeling like it wasn’t a betrayal. It’s hard to not personalize it.

But I’ve learned that someone’s decision whether or not they do the next right thing has nothing to do with me. If I personalize it, I am carrying a cross to bear that is not mine to carry, I am carrying responsibility for someone’s decisions that is not mine to take.

Believing in that person’s capacity to do hard things was not a bad judgment on my part. Everyone has the capacity to do the next right thing. Believing in someone while knowing we are all flawed is a sign of my softness in this hard world, is a sign that Grace does live in me, is a sign that I’m as messy as the next person and I won’t let someone’s flaws dictate my fate or sense of self.

I’ve learned that when I’m disappointed when someone shows me who he/she really is in this moment, I just need to honor myself and move him/her to another circle in my life. People need to earn the right to hear my story and earn the right to have access to my soul. Grace has taught me that when people show me they no longer have that right, I need not lash out in anger or wallow in despair. Grace has taught me lovingkindness, and that I just need to move those people into the periphery of my life, or out of my life.

Grace has taught me to not be a sucker. Grace has taught me to not be bitter. Grace has taught me that when someone lies to you, he/she is lying to him/herself, and those consequences are worse than any consequence I could bestow. I’ve learned that when someone decides to not do the hard work of being honest with you, it oftentimes means they’re not entirely honest with him or herself. I’ve learned that someone’s inability to do hard things in life has nothing to do with me. Grace has taught me to continue to be open to others trying to do the next right thing.

Grace has taught me to trust that I can and should remain open to allowing others to show me if they will do hard things in life, if they will do the next right thing. Grace has given me the strength to continue to believe in people while honoring and respecting myself enough to have boundaries if they do not honor or respect me.

I used to get really, really angry when I realized someone disappointed me or lied to me or was not the person I thought he/she was. I used to lash out in hurt because how dare this person do this to ME, I deserve better than this. I’ve since realized that when someone chooses to not do hard things, to not do the next right thing, he/she is hurting others too, not just me. More importantly, he/she is hurting him/herself. Grace gives me the empathy to understand and accept this, and move on in my life without this person, because I do deserve better than that. Because if I hold on to the anger, this person remains in my life.

It’s always sad to remove people from my life, but it’s a much sadder tale to tell if I allowed these people to remain in my life, if I allowed them to continue to disrespect my belief in them, my boundaries, my self-respect.

Grace has taught me that holding on to the anger, or holding on to the hurt, or holding on to the betrayal, is so heavy that it keeps me stuck in one place, in the past. Grace has taught me that it costs me nothing to put down such heavy things and move forward, into peace.

Grace has taught me some funny yet useful lessons, like I need not attend every argument I’m invited to. I also need not attend every pity party that hardens me when I’m betrayed, lied to, disappointed. I can send my regrets and attend other parties instead, parties that include lots of good wine and good food and good people who honor me and do the next right thing by me. Grace has taught me she throws one hell of a party.

Posted in Dating, Empowerment, Mindfulness, Relationships | Tagged , , , | 5 Comments

Life Lessons from Snow

nature, snow, life lessons

I am not a professional writer because I can’t write to assignment. Yet I didn’t argue with my friend when he gently told me to go for a walk in the snow, look for something special or inspiring or beautiful, send him a picture, and come home to write about it. I laced up my sneakers and threw on my Wonder Woman beanie hat because yesterday was not a good day despite good intentions. I woke up still carrying yesterday’s pain and I don’t want to keep holding it. It was getting heavy.

I love running in the snow. It brings me closer to God. It’s peaceful and quiet. There’s hope and new perspectives. So I head out to the trails and start looking for something inspiring, something beautiful, something special. I quickly realize that I cannot find one thing that is inspiring, beautiful, special. Because it all is. All of it.

All of this world is inspiring and beautiful and special. My friend nudged me out the door to remind me that this world is larger than me and my bad day and my pain. Perspective is everything, and when I’m sitting there crying and sobbing, feeling sorry for myself, it feels like my world is closing in on me. And it is. My sadness and my problems grow in between each tear that falls down my face. I feel overwhelmed, and I cry more.

I needed the reminder to do something different, and that is to actively widen my world back up. Perspective is everything. My pain is real and sad, and it is a glorious world with so much beauty and joy.

This curious little graveyard sits in the middle of nowhere, right off a trail. It’s over 160 years old, and holds a family of six. Of all things, this provides perspective. Our time here is short. It’s up to me to make it good, even when I have a bad day.

One of the things I love about running in the snow is that the world seems to soften. These rocks are hard, jagged, cold. Yet it becomes a canvas for snow, and the rocks seem to soften. This reminds me that every moment and interaction in life is an opportunity. And hard things happen. It’s up to me to decide if difficult or bad things harden my soul, or softens it. I want life’s trials to soften me, because fully feeling and holding the hurts and pain gives me the gift of empathy and compassion. This empathy and compassion connects me to all of the other messy humans, and it’s a beautiful thing.

Walking in the snow affords a different view than running. I notice more details. Nature is a funny thing, a wondrous thing. This reminds me that there’s always something bright, even in the midst of cold times. You just have to look for it.

I always marvel at how the trees look so different with a coat of snow. I can see their shapes in a different way. I can see how the forces of nature twisted their trunks and branches. I can see how the winds of life have blown and blown, and pushed and pushed some trees. And yet they still grow and thrive. These trees were certainly supposed to grow straight and tall like most of the other trees. But sometimes we don’t get what we want in life, and winds of life push us around and batter us a little. I can stand strongly and keep growing and thriving even with unexpected twists and storms that rage.

The snow, the woods, the raging storms life throws at me–I choose to allow them to soften me. This is how I grow and thrive in this vast world that is inspiring, beautiful, special. Choosing to allow life’s hardships to soften me make me inspiring, beautiful, special.

Posted in Meditation, Mindfulness, spirituality | 4 Comments